Journal of Educational and Management Studies  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(1): 08-21, March 25, 2020  
License: CC BY 4.0,  
ISSN: 2322-4770  
The comparison of mindfulness techniques teaching effects  
on improving teachers' occupational and students' academic  
Fereshteh Allipour1 and Vida Andishmand2  
1MSc, Iran  
2PhD, Iran  
Original Article  
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on teachers' job  
performance and academic performance of students. The present study was a pre-test and post-test  
PII: S232247702000002-10  
design with control groups. The statistical population of the study consisted of all students and teachers  
Rec. 04 January, 2020  
Acc. 20 March, 2020  
Pub. 25 March, 2020  
of Shahid Mahdavi's sophomore non-governmental elementary school in Kerman province in the  
academic year 1397-1398. Using random sampling method, 40 teachers from all bases and 40 students  
were randomly selected and the subjects of both groups were randomly divided into two experimental  
and control groups (each group, 20 students and teachers). Subsequently, awareness sessions were  
conducted on them. After completing the training, they were re-tested. The tool used in this research was  
the teacher-occupation performance questionnaire 2010 and Pham and Tyler's (1999) academic  
performance questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS-24 software and covariance analysis. The  
results showed a significant improvement in the teachers' job performance scores and the academic  
performance of the students in the experimental group compared with the control group at the level of p  
<0.05). The present study showed that mindfulness education can help to improve the occupational and  
academic performance of teachers and students groups. From the tables and the results of the research  
hypotheses, it is concluded that Mindfulness training in occupational performance has not been affected  
by the function of task performance. Mindfulness education has been more influential on the underlying  
performance and further increased. Mindfulness education in academic performance exerts much  
emotional impact but it has not influenced planning. The impact on moderate motivation will slightly  
increase self-efficacy, but little impact on the lack of outcome control. And finally, the result of the  
covariance analysis revealed that teaching mindfulness techniques had been more effective on teachers’  
occupational performance than students’ academic improvement.  
Mindfulness techniques,  
Academic performance of  
Teachers' occupational  
2014). Performance can be divided into two groups’ of  
functional performance and underlying performance.  
A part of the performance that is usually present in  
the formal job description is called functional  
performance. The underlying function is defined as  
the behavior that contributes to the effectiveness of  
the organization through the impact on the  
psychological, social and organizational fields of work  
2016). On the other hand, educational performance is  
influenced by the various biological, psychological and  
social dimensions. Various factors affect the academic  
performance of individuals, which According to  
education professionals, are divided into individual,  
academic, family, and social factors (Zahrakar, 2005).  
The amount of academic Achievement that is  
measured using different course tests is called the  
academic performance (Seif, 2013). Educational  
performance is one of the important indicators in the  
Teachers, as human forces are among the most  
important factors of education. These factors drive  
the wheels of the organization so that it moves  
forward. It is obvious that if the organization can  
provide the appropriate conditions for them, they can  
be expected to have a geart performance. Teachers  
are identified as the most important and effective  
factors in the school and are responsible for their job  
(Baldauf and Cravens, 2002). Job performance is in  
fact the amount of efficiency achieved by the person  
in the organization including service and  
manufacturing functions and is affected by two  
factors which are the ability of employees to perform  
job duties and the existence of motivation among the  
employees, since, if they have the required abilities  
and motivations, they will do their works  
Citation: Allipour F and Andishmand V (2020). The comparison of mindfulness techniques teaching effects on improving teachers' occupational and students'  
academic performance. J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(1): 08-. DOI:  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(1): 08-21, 2020  
assessment of students, using evaluation of academic  
5. Valuing the present moment instead of getting  
busy doing something.  
scores and educational achievement as a criterion for  
assessment and selection of people in their occupation  
and education (Hashemian, 2013). According to Pham  
and Taylor (1999( academic performance has five  
components. Self - efficacy, a sense of confidence and  
the ability to respond to educational requirements  
and activities. Emotional effects, an individual’s  
response to a set of emotions such as anxiety that  
excites the individual. Planning is the ability to  
organize courses timetable according to a specific and  
measurable basis and also to manage time to perform  
educational tasks. The absence of outcome control is  
due to believing that more individual does not lead to  
a desired outcome. Motivation is the self - motivation  
for studying more and academic motivation to  
achieve higher marks, to get a suitable job or just  
study to gain knowledge and improve the public skills  
and knowledge. It seems that" mindfulness "" is one of  
6. Accepting the life facts at any moment,  
7. Independence and abandoning (Kabat-Zinn,  
Mindfulness based medical recognition requires  
specific behavioral, cognitive and strategies to focus  
on attention process, which in turn leads to the  
prevention of bad temper,, negative thinking,  
tendency to disturbing responses and growth of new  
goals which are setting attention, creating awareness,  
decentralization, and creating acceptance of present  
states and mental states.  
This therapy is taught to educate people to be  
more aware and behave properly with their thoughts  
and feelings. It also helps individuals to look at all the  
stimuli that are placed in their consciousness at any  
moment without judging and yet with Attention (Day  
and Thorn, 2017). mindfulness includes various  
exercises, such as eating raisins, (eating mindful),  
body scan, breathing, exercise of breathing space,  
practice of walking with the presence of mind and a  
few therapeutic practices that reveal the connection  
between the manner, thoughts, emotion, and physical  
sensations. All of these exercises forms a kind of  
attention to the physical and surrounding situations  
in the present moment and reduce the automatic  
processes of thoughts (Kaviani et al., 2008). Schools  
often justify the use of training programs because it  
promotes positive behaviour and improves student's  
educational performance, and therefore it seems to be  
effective directly and indirectly on students as well  
Teachers will be more likely to pay attention by  
performing mindfulness exercises. Certainly, their  
ability of teaching and communicating will be  
promoted and gets more influential on students.  
Therefore, if the training exercises are used by  
teachers in the classroom, the attention and focus of  
the students will be higher in the classroom, their  
tension and anxiety decreases and their academic  
performance will improve (Napoli, 2013). On the other  
hand, the reason of many students ' education  
problems is their lack of attention in the classroom  
and during the study. In fact, many of the students  
have a physical presence in the classroom, but they do  
the variables that can affect teachers  
performance and academic performance of students.  
In recent years, the use of mindfulness training  
programs for teachers and students is increasing. The  
purpose of these programs is to enhance emotional  
improve social relations (Kohilo Ostrik, 2016) and is  
related to an extended range of cognitive, emotional  
and health factors (brown, cresol, ryan, shadowing)  
(Brownet al., 2015). This kind of training has a great  
emphasis on learning through direct experience (Lu et  
al., 2017). Mindfulness means paying attention in a  
specific and purposeful way in present without any  
judgment. It’s a kind of consciousness without  
judgment, that is indescribable and according to  
present time and based on a special experience I'd  
someone in a special moment. Moreover, this concept  
refers to confession of an experience and accepting it  
(Lu et al., 2017). The most common definition of  
mindfulness is presented by Kabat Zin (2003). He  
defines it as consciousness about events which  
happen now and here, inside and outside us without  
any preconceived conclusions, and without following  
a certain Result."  
The seven essential elements of mindfulness are:  
1. Not judging,  
2. Being patient,  
3. Having an open mind,  
4. Trusting,  
Allipour and Andishmand, 2019  
not have attention when the teacher teaches so they  
history and according to the social needs in each  
period, there are psychologists, sociologists, and  
experts to help teachers and students to improve  
their performance; the purpose of this study is to  
study the effectiveness of therapeutic effectiveness of  
mindfulness on improving the job performance of  
teachers and students ' education performance.  
face many problems. Therefore, if teachers learn their  
training exercises properly and practice them  
properly in class, they will be able to improve the  
quality of teaching and help the students (Brown and  
concluded that there is a significant relationship  
between mindfulness and employees' job satisfaction  
and employees' performance (Reb, 2018). In a research  
entitled as managers' mindfulness and employees'  
This study was a semi - experimental study with pre -  
test, post - test and - using a control group. The  
population of this study consisted of all the students  
and teachers of Shahid Mahdavi elementary school in  
Kerman during the academic year of 2010 - 2011. The  
students were randomly divided into two groups:  
experimental and control groups. The subjects were  
randomly divided into two experimental and control  
performance, mentioned  
interpersonal justice and employees' stress. The  
results showed that there is a positive and significant  
mediator between  
The results of the researches by Tuckeyet al.  
(2018), entitled as, "is there a relationship between  
mindfulness and job management, and job  
satisfaction of employees, "showed that mindfulness  
is related to job satisfaction. Mettler et al. (2017),  
revealed in their research entitled as concentrated  
mindfulness and coping with university, that  
mindfulness is obviously related to all kinds of coping  
such as educational, personal and emotional.  
Mesmer-Magnus et al., (2017) also had a research  
as mindfulness characteristics in job, a meta-analysis  
of personal and professional relationships of positive  
characteristics, and found that mindfulness has  
relationship with confidence, mental health, and  
satisfaction of job and life. Puriarizi et al. (20187), also  
found in a research as the effect of mindfulness on  
educational improvement and Compatibility , that  
mindfulness has a direct and significant relationship  
with academic progress and educational harmony .  
Afshari and Fathi (2018), also studied the relation  
between the sense of solidarity and job satisfaction  
with the role of the mediator of emotional  
intelligence, and found that there is a positive and  
meaningful relationship between mindfulness and job  
satisfaction. Additionally, Zarei and Arshad Hosseini  
(2018), found that there is a significant difference in  
occupational stress and job - efficacy of physical  
education instructors and there is a significant  
difference between the scores of two groups of test  
and evidence in occupational stress and occupational  
Data collection tools  
Teachers ' job performance questionnaire,  
The teachers 'job performance questionnaire,  
(Darandeh 2010), included 105 questions that  
examined the job performance of teachers in both  
field performance and functional performance This  
questionnaire is graded in 5 - point Likert Scale from  
very low (1) to very high scores (5) . teachers ' scores  
of 27 to 45 showed teachers ' low performance, the  
scores of 45 to 90 showed teachers ' mediate  
performance and scores higher than 90 showed '  
high performance of teachers .  
scores range between 27 to 135. Higher  
scores indicate better job performance. By  
implementing this questionnaire in the pilot study  
with the population of 106 persons, Shariatmadari and  
Darandeh measured the reliability of the  
questionnaire which was calculated through internal  
consistency and cronbach’s alpha method.  
reliability was calculated by cronbach’s alpha which  
was 0.92. In the present study, the reliability of the  
questionnaire was determined through cronbach “s  
alpha which was 69.0 for the whole questionnaire,  
77.0 for underlying performance and 74.0 for  
functional performance .and shows a desirable  
reliability of this questionnaire for the present study  
self - efficacy . According to the importance  
teachers and students role in the development of  
societies and due to the fact that in any period of  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(1): 08-21, 2020  
Educational performance of Fam andTyler (EPT)  
body scan practice was stopped and the exercise of  
sitting and focusing on the breathing began, so that  
respiration was used as a practice to control  
Sixth meeting: The concepts of strengthening  
love and friendship, promoting health and love for  
yourself and others were discussed. This session  
exercises were like the fifth session of practicing,  
including sitting meditation training and practice of  
breathing and a revision of home assignment and  
recording of pleasing events. Finally, at this session,  
the technique of raisins was taught related to how to  
eat properly.  
The seventh session: In this week, people  
generally use techniques of sitting meditation, yoga,  
and body scanning. After training, the teachers must  
use a combination of all the three techniques.  
The eighth session: This week, the teachers are  
asked to choose the technique that fits their status  
best. They may just choose to sit mindfully or do yoga  
or a scan of the body, or two or three of the techniques  
or more. What matters is that they use these  
experiences and techniques at the end of education  
and apply it throughout their lives (Kabat Zinn, 2005).  
A short discussion of the obstacles in applying the  
methods, reviewing the literature discussed in the  
previous sessions, and finally the conclusion and  
conducting the post test.  
Educational performance of Fam and Tyler (EPT)  
1999 was created and standardized by Dortaj for Iran  
Society. The questionnaire includes 48 questions that  
measure five academic fields: self-efficacy, emotional  
effects planning, lack of outcome control and  
motivation. A score is devoted to each of these five  
factors, respectively 5,4,3,2,1,. a score of less than 53  
indicate poor self- efficacy and efficacy and a score of  
higher than 85 shows high self-efficacy. The score  
below 28 shows weak emotional effects and a higher  
than 53 score indicates strong emotional .effects The  
score below 6 indicates strong outcomes control. A  
score below 14 shows a strong motivation.  
The score below 120 indicates ꢀꢁꢁn itacodeꢁroꢂ  
ꢀinꢃꢁnꢄorci and higher than 175 shows a strong  
academic performance. A score between 121 and 174  
indicates the average academic performance. In the  
present study alpha Cranach was used to determine  
the reliability of the questionnaire in which the values  
for the subscales were respectively 0.70, 0.69, 0.65,  
0.75, 0.77 and for the whole questionnaire was 0.77  
that shows the desired reliability of this questionnaire  
in this sample.  
The training package of mindfulness techniques  
for students and teachers  
Mindfulness based training program for teachers  
The first session: Introduction of mindfulness  
theoretical foundations, conceptualization, and the  
necessity of mindfulness, was taught using the raisin  
and body scans techniques.  
The second session: the concept of stress,  
judgment, anger, depression, and practice of  
diaphragm breathing was taught.  
The third session: providing the subjects in the  
field of emotional regulation skills, resilience, self -  
solving and positive thinking skills, in this session  
(sitting meditation) and body scan with yoga .was  
Mindfulness based training program for students  
The first session:  
a brief introduction of  
mindfulness training, reviewing the performance of  
the autopilot and the difference with mindfulness  
function, the training of mindful breathing by two  
methods of teddy bear and breathing with a pinwheel  
and playing wind and cloud game.  
The second session: mindful Breathing with  
pinwheel, concentration on the tasting, exercise of  
mindfulness, referring to the difference between  
characterization and judgment and the performance  
of seed and butterfly game.  
The fourth session:  
the basic skills of  
interpersonal communication, anger, the skill of self-  
expression, and the rules of protest were presented  
and Exercise of meditation (mindful walking) was  
The third session: Playing with the bear, training  
three concepts of emotions, physical senses and  
The Fourth session:  
3 minute mindful  
The fifth session: The concepts in the field of  
negative emotional tolerance skills and the emotional  
experience of anger were presented. This week the  
Breathing training, water glass exercise, playing the  
invisible ball game, and training bubble meditation.  
Allipour and Andishmand, 2019  
The fifth session : Playing with the bear , focusing  
description by examining a few objects with different  
roughness and softness degrees, and the game of sun  
and ice cream.  
The 10th session: mindful Breathing (Breathing 3  
minutes), focusing attention on the sense of smell, the  
mindful smell training, practicing bubble meditation,  
and the applying the two exercises of mountain state  
practices and child status.  
attention on hearing ,mindful listening training (the  
receiver sound) and playing cat and cow games  
(making mirrors).  
The sixth session: training mindful breathing  
with flowers and candles, focusing on hearing senses,  
mindful listening, body scans training, and playing  
the jump game.  
The seventh session: mindful breathing (three-  
minute breathing), focusing on the sense of sight,  
mindful viewing training, the first part (drawing),  
training the distinction between judging and  
describing by examining an object from different  
angles and playing the curious mind game.  
The eighth session: conscious breathing with  
teddy bear, focus and attention on vision, training of  
mindful sight, second part (drawing), examining  
perceptual errors, performing love kindness  
meditation, and performing memory game.  
The eleventh session: mindful breathing (3  
minutes breathing), an awareness of the body moving,  
taking steps mindfully, and practicing a pendulum  
The 12th session: mindful breathing (3 minutes  
breathing), a review of the overall mindful drills which  
were presented and examining the applicability of  
mindfulness to the routine life.  
implementation of the post test. In this study, in  
addition to the use of descriptive statistics, such as  
average and standard deviation and variance, the  
covariance analysis is used to investigate the  
hypotheses of the research.  
The ninth session: mindful Breathing (3 minutes  
Breathing), focusing the attention on the sense of  
touch, learning of mindful touch, exercising to  
distinguish the difference between judgment and  
Lack of  
Figure 1. Mindfulness based training program  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(1): 08-21, 2020  
Figure 2. Analytical model of mindfulness techniques  
Not judging  
No judging , deletion or confirming about life events  
Being patient  
Having an open mind  
Being patient in all life events  
Complete understand all the events of life as they happen theory  
Complete trust in the ability of achieving mindfulness skills  
Being present  
instead of being  
Being present in the moment instead of escaping from the  
Accepting the  
life facts  
Not denying the facts, accepting them and preparation for  
changes and reforming  
and abandoning  
Independence from all the things in life  
Optimism, efficiency feeling ,and trusting in success after effort  
and high self confidence  
Self efficacy  
Emotional effects  
Anxiety and test anxiety , feeling of unreliability , low self - confi  
the exact planning program for studying , time management in  
the exam , acting exactly according to the curriculum , predicting  
Pessimism and no motivation for success in the exam after  
effort and study and involving chances in achieving educational  
Lack of outcome control  
worrisome about success in the exam, career prospecting,  
interest in reading, wasting time, hard work, no motivation in  
preparation for exam, persistence and effort at the time of  
testing, motivation to achieve the goal  
Efficient use of the course and budgeting and technology and  
teaching aids in teaching and paying attention to the tasks assigned  
to students.  
Complete and correct record of classroom books and continuous  
examining of the scores in the process of teaching and learning and  
observing the principles of measurement in the assessment.  
Encouraging the students to participate in festivals and competitions  
Active participation in training workshops and in-service sessions  
Success in teaching and success in performing job tasks  
Obeying the rules and regulations of the administration  
Job performance  
of teachers  
Paying attention to the psychological , emotional and personal  
differences of students and applying the effective ways of improving  
student 's behavior and considering students ' participation in  
Creating enthusiasm and attachment of religion and knowledge in  
students and the degree of observance of Islamic rituals and norms of  
Feeling of job satisfaction and being satisfied with the manager and  
colleagues and empathy with the authorities in the curriculum  
regulating and
The possibility of teacher talents appearing in the workplace and  
feeling of responsibility towards the future of the society and  
Innovation and creativity in ways of transferring knowledge to  
students and job skills to colleagues who are interested in acquiring
Allipour and Andishmand, 2019  
assumption of normalcy for all research variables is  
confirmed because the significance level is equal to or  
greater than 0.05.  
According to Table 4, scores of people were used in  
the pre - intervention implementation in this analysis.  
The test results (F= 107.900, P= 0.003) indicate the  
effect of learning mindfulness on job performance.  
In this section we will first examine the demographic  
and descriptive aspects of the research variables and  
then investigate the use of parametric tests and then  
investigate the research hypotheses.  
Table 1. Descriptive indexes of job performance and  
its sub-components before and after the  
experimental intervention.  
Table 3. The results of Kolmogorov Smirnoff Test and  
Shapiro-Wilk W-test to investigate the assumption of  
Smirnoff Test  
0.323 0.447 4.40  
0.367 0.472 4.84  
0.312 0.566 4.45  
Job performance  
Pre test  
Job performance  
Post test  
Functional performance  
pre test  
Functional performance  
post test  
Underlying performance  
pre test  
Underlying performance  
post test  
Educational performance  
pre test  
Educational performance  
post test  
0.312 0.567  
0.325 0.445 4.24  
0.410 0.662 4.90  
39 029.  
Table 2. Description of educational performance index  
and its sub - components in two groups before and  
after the experimental intervention  
Self-efficacy pre test  
Self-efficacy post test  
146. Emotional effects pre test  
190. Emotional effects post test  
Planning pre test  
Planning post test  
0.300 0.440 2.722 134  
0.330 0.479 4.122 175  
0.314 0.552 3.009 65  
0.320 0.576 3.195 85  
20 Pre test  
20 post test  
20 Pre test  
20 post test  
Lack of outcome control  
pre test  
Lack of outcome control  
post test  
Motivation pre test  
Motivation post test  
0.344 0.442 2.609 47  
0.428 0.540 4.900 53  
20 Pre test  
20 post test  
0.312 0.450 1.590  
20 Pre test  
Table 4. Covariance test to investigate the  
mindfulness training effects on job performance  
0.312 0.451 1.590 23  
20 post test  
20 Pre test  
20 post test  
Lack of  
0.304 0.552 3.009  
0.307 0.556 3.012  
0.350 0.450 3.503 17  
0.369 0.479 4.789 24  
20 Pre test  
14 20 post test  
0.590 0.001 80.509 17761.568  
0.588 0.003 107.900 2333.610  
Before testing the hypotheses of this research, the  
normalcy of the variables must be ensured that the  
Kolmogorov Smirnoff Test and Shapiro-Wilk W-test  
were used to investigate the variables normalcy.  
According to table 3 the results indicate that the  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(1): 08-21, 2020  
According to table 5, scores of people were used in  
Table 5. Covariance test to investigate the effects of  
the pre - intervention implementation in this analysis.  
The test results (F =80.600 P =0.000) indicate the  
effect of learning mindfulness on functional  
mindfulness training on functional performance  
According to table 6, scores of people were used in  
the pre - intervention implementation in this analysis.  
The test results (F =129.439 P =0.004) indicate the  
effect of learning mindfulness on underlying  
0.599 0.001 80.509 17761.568  
0.599 0.000 80.600 2333.610  
According to table 7, scores of people were used in  
the pre - intervention implementation in this analysis.  
The test results (F =105.900 P =0.003) indicate the  
effect of learning mindfulness on educational  
Table 6. Covariance test to investigate the effects of  
mindfulness training on underlying performance  
According to table 8, scores of people were used in  
the pre - intervention implementation in this analysis.  
The test results (F =90.207 P =0.002) indicate the  
effect of learning mindfulness on self-efficacy.  
According to table 9, scores of people were used in  
the pre - intervention implementation in this analysis.  
The test results (F =985.236 P =0.003) indicate the  
effect of learning mindfulness on emotional effects.  
According to table 10, scores of people were used  
in the pre - intervention implementation in this  
analysis. The test results (F =80.509 P =0.00) indicate  
the effect of learning mindfulness on planning.  
According to table 11, scores of people were used in  
0.590 0.001 80.509 17761.568  
0.664 0.004 129.439 2333.610  
Table 7. Covariance test to investigate the effects of  
mindfulness training on educational performance  
the pre - intervention implementation in this analysis.  
The test results (F =112.700 P =0.004) indicate the  
effect of learning mindfulness on lack of outcome  
0.570 0.002 69.509 17761.568  
0.576 0.003 105.900 2333.610  
According to table 12, scores of people were used  
in the pre - intervention implementation in this  
analysis. The test results (F =102.300, P =0.005)  
indicate the effect of learning mindfulness on  
Table 8. Covariance test to investigate the effects of  
mindfulness training on self-efficacy  
The results of table 13 show that considering the  
pre test scores as covariance variables, mindfulness  
training intervention has resulted in significant  
differences between the two groups in their job  
performance. The intervention degree was (F= 10.21,  
P< 0.001, H 2=0, 50), so we can say that mindfulness  
causes an improvement in job performance.  
The results of table 14 show that considering the  
pre test scores as covariance variables, mindfulness  
training intervention has resulted in significant  
differences between the two groups in their  
educational performance. The intervention degree  
was (F= 0.001, P< 10.65, H 2=0), so we can say that  
mindfulness causes an improvement in educational  
0.595 0.001 80.509 1761.568  
0.600 0.002 90.207 2423.610  
Table 9. Covariance test to investigate the effects of  
mindfulness training on emotional effects  
0.599 0.002 670.980 14450.998 1  
0.697 0.003 985.236 7650.09  
Allipour and Andishmand, 2019  
Table 10. Covariance test to investigate the effects of  
mindfulness training on planning  
Table14. The results of covariance analysis test of one  
variable for the post test scores of educational  
0.593 0.000 80.509 17761.560  
0.593 0.000 80.509 2333.630  
17761.560 Planning  
2333.630 Group  
(pre test)  
0.34 0.001 16.28 688.69  
Table 11. Covariance test to investigate the effects of  
mindfulness training on lack of outcome control  
0.43 0.001 10.65 960.54  
37 950.82  
39 2599.95  
Lack of  
16561.844 outcome  
0.570 0.001 80.509 16561.844  
0.576 0.004 112.700 2063.500  
Results of the covariance analyses show that there is a  
difference between the job performance scores of  
teachers and the student's academic performance by  
controlling the pre - test scores. Therefore, it can be  
said that mindfulness improves the job performance  
of teachers and students ' education performance.  
This finding is consistent with Afshari and Fathi,  
approval of this finding, it can be stated that the  
consciousness of consciousness creates its effects  
through its mechanisms in the individual's vision of  
its performance. It is thought to be able to engage  
with informed attention and extend the relevance of  
more acceptances to the current experience, and  
instead chooses more useful ways to respond, thus  
increasing the job performance of teachers. The  
consciousness with focusing on realities and attention  
based on this and now as well as rejection or denial of  
different themes and problems, and in contrast to  
their experience, reduces Fred's magnification and  
thereby improving his unhealthy behavior patterns  
and improving his career performance. This method  
reduces anxiety, physiological arousal, anxiety, and  
increased job performance by increasing an  
individual's awareness of the present - present  
experiences and turning attention to the more  
efficient cognitive processing and processing of  
Table 12. Covariance test to investigate the effects of  
mindfulness training on motivation  
0.570 0.002 80.698 568.1229  
0.596 0.005 102.300 610.546  
568.1229 Motivation  
610.546 Group  
Table 13. The results of covariance analysis test of one  
variable for the post test scores of job performance  
)post test (  
0.42 0.001 15.21 688.77  
0.50 0.001 10.21 960.55  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(1): 08-21, 2020  
information. With practice, students find the ability to  
fact is that the functional performance of teachers is  
known and monitored by the school director or  
inspectors, and also because of holding periods of  
service, training workshops and numerous sessions,  
which are related to direct job functions of teachers  
and also because of the selections of interviews and  
entrance exams for which teachers sit in order to get  
hired , the majority of teachers who are joined to  
schools have the necessary knowledge in terms of  
familiarity with the basic tasks of teaching job  
(teaching, writing plan, assessment of students,  
seniority, etc.) and hence teachers seem to have done  
their duty fairly well. Therefore, in this study, after  
training mindfulness ,there has been no change in the  
engage themselves consciously and persevere in the  
face of difficult situations, and be able to remain calm  
in front of the problems and problems of their school  
and find a rational solution and that process will  
improve students ' educational performance.  
In the case of this finding, Kabat-Zinn et al.  
(2007)stated that mindfulness  
is one of the  
treatments based on stress reduction and  
psychotherapy, in which a mental representation of  
things in life that are out of control of human being at  
once, is taught through breathing and thinking.  
Increasing attention and awareness of the thoughts,  
emotions, and trends are some of the positive aspects  
of mindfulness, which lead to the co - ordination of  
the adaptive behaviors and the positive psychological  
states; it even leads to improving the individual's  
ability to engage in individual and social activities and  
their interest in these activities. These trainings,  
therefore, can change people's attitudes towards  
accidents and events by improving the mentioned  
abilities and encouraging them to participate in  
individual and social activities and be effective in  
improving their job performance. (Sharf, 2009).  
Results of the covariance analyses of one way show  
that there is no difference between the functional  
performance scores of teachers and groups by  
controlling the pre - test scores. Therefore, it is  
possible to say that mindfulness does not improve  
functional performance. This finding is not consistent  
with the results of Afshari and Fathi, (2018),  
Janaabadi, (2016), Rastgoo (2016), Akbari  
Tuckey (2017) Mesmer, and Magnus et al 2018  
researches. In explaining this finding, it can be stated  
that mindfulness is a cure that uses cognitive skills to  
increase psychological flexibility. In this approach,  
cognitive flexibility is the increase in the ability of the  
clients to communicate with their experiences at  
present and based on what is possible for them at that  
moment, in a manner consistent with the underlying  
values. Izadi, et al., (2014). Mindfulness is based on the  
hypothesis, that psychological damage is associated  
with an effort to control or avoid negative thoughts  
' functional performance because the  
teachers are always doing it. The results of one-way  
analysis of covariance show that there is a difference  
between the scores of the subjects in post - test and  
control groups. Therefore, it can be said that  
performance. In approval of these findings, it can be  
stated that the mindfulness training allows one to  
gain the opportunity to become more receptive to  
others and accept others without undue and negative  
judgments. It also encourages individuals to be kinder  
and sensitive to the needs of others (Rastgoo et al.  
2016). In fact, by increasing the capacity of people in  
self - awareness, empathic concern and emotional  
regulation, there will be some steps to increase  
teachers ' capacity and improve their underlying  
Results of the covariance analyses of one way  
show that there is a difference between the student  
performance scores of post-test and groups with the  
pre - test scores control, so mindfulness can be said to  
improve students ' educational performance. In  
approval of this statement it can be mentioned that  
mindfulness helps the students to study and  
understand the subject by creating awareness and  
concentration. But this is just one aspect of how it  
affects educational performance. By improving  
students self - awareness, mindfulness helps students  
to recognize their weaknesses and strengths. With  
mindfulness training, students learn to be more  
present at the moment, to be alert to the inner and  
outer phenomena, and develop a nonjudgmental  
attitude with acceptance of phenomena, that leads to  
their academic performance development. The results  
In this study, the effectiveness of mindfulness  
on the functional performance of teachers is not  
significant, it is likely that one of the causes of this  
Allipour and Andishmand, 2019  
of one-way analysis of covariance show that there is a  
and plan the course activities on a specific and  
measurable basis as well as appropriate use of time to  
perform educational tasks and finally improve their  
planning. The fact that this hypothesis, according to  
these findings, is rejected, can be justified in this way  
that, since planning needs specific and technical, and  
needs special training , therefore , if the course of  
instruction and reading is not taught to the students ,  
there will be no change in this component of academic  
performance ,just with mindfulness. But if they have  
the necessary related education, their planning ability  
will improve. The results of one - way ANCOVA  
analysis showed that there is a difference between the  
scores of the lack of control of the outcome of the  
control groups with the pre - test scores. Therefore, it  
can be said that “mindfulness " can improve student  
outcome control. In approval of these findings it can  
be said that from mindfulness point of view, avoiding  
from the experiences, leads to harming. Although,  
experiments avoidance has a decreasing effect on  
unpleasant experiences, it has destructive effects in  
the long_ term and can lead to lack of flexibility and  
functional defects. Experience avoidance is formally  
defined as attempting to avoid or escape from  
thoughts. “Mindfulness enables the person to feel  
unpleasant experiences without trying to control  
them, and doing so will make the experiences look less  
threatening and reduce their impact on one’s life.  
Hence, the lack of control improves their life.  
Traditional and neglected patterns of negative  
thinking are called based on the habit to avoid  
problematic situations in one's life. The participants  
may be aware of their own negative thoughts and  
emotions, and can overcome the negative patterns of  
response to the situations, when their functions get  
more confident, rational, and more balanced, and thus  
they will step forward with more confidence in their  
effort to gain success. The results of the one way  
covariance analyses show that there is a difference  
between the motivation scores of students groups  
with the pre-test scores of control group. Therefore, it  
can be said that mindfulness improves the motivation  
of students. In approval of these findings, it can be  
stated that if the students find adequate recognition  
about their abilities and assess their positions  
correctly, they are more able to reinforce the motives  
of success, and they can continue to study with  
recognition of the situation in which they can  
increase their motivation.  
difference between the scores of self - efficacy in post-  
test test students and control groups in pretest  
scores. Therefore, it can be said that mindfulness can  
improve students self - efficacy. In approval of this  
findings it can be said that mindfulness training  
teaches the students how to view their inner and  
outer experiences with awareness and without  
If we consider self - efficacy as a kind of attitude  
toward our abilities, mindfulness can teach us how to  
pay attention to the moment without judgment about  
the future. And respond to the moment instead of  
reaction. By encouraging students to have attention  
and awareness of body and mind, students release  
their mind from mental preoccupation with anxiety  
about how to function in exams. In This way  
students ' abilities will increase. The results of one -  
way analysis of covariance shows that mindfulness  
can improve the emotional effects of students with  
the control of pre - test scores. Therefore, it can be  
said that “mindfulness" can improve the emotional  
effects of students .In approval of this findings it can  
be said that mindfulness give the students the Chance  
to view his environment and experiences again  
judgmental vision and to have  
concentration as a cure and guidance to complete  
awareness in order to know his environment better  
and accept it (Forman and Herbert, 2008).  
When a person faces an emotional situation, good  
sense and optimism is not enough to control emotion,  
but an individual needs to know self - awareness in  
these situations and have the best cognitive function.  
Mindfulness can be effective in decreasing and  
controlling emotions due to profound mental  
communication with emotions. The results of one -  
way analysis of covariance shows that there is no  
significant difference between the scores of pre - test  
scores of the groups of control and the pre-test scores,  
so it can be claimed that mindfulness can improve the  
students planning ability. In approval of these  
findings it can be mentioned that “mindfulness” is a  
sense of consciousness without judgment that helps  
to see and accept emotions and physical phenomena,  
as they happens.  
Therefore, teaching it to students makes them  
accept their feelings and weaknesses, and acceptance  
of these feelings will reduce their sensitivity to the  
outcome of these symptoms, the ability to organize  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(1): 08-21, 2020  
With the acquisition of this skill, significant  
Although the usefulness of using therapy  
techniques with behavioral therapy has been  
changes are made on the individual and  
interpersonal indicators, so that, they gain a  
realistic understanding of themselves and the  
world around them and are empowered to control  
their feelings and behaviors. They also make more  
success in establishing effective, deep and honest  
relations with others. Moreover, by improving self  
- awareness, mental functions such as accuracy,  
attention, reasoning, and learning accelerate and  
lead to an increase in academic motivation. The  
results of the covariance analysis show that  
mindfulness training is more effective on job  
performance of teachers. Therefore, it can be said  
that the study of effectiveness and comparison of  
education is different on the job performance of  
teachers and students ' academic performance. It  
can be noted that considering the results obtained  
in the present study that shows that mindfulness  
therapy is more effective on teachers job  
performance, it is more likely that it's because  
teachers have higher cognitive development, and  
it is due to their age. Therefore, the high level of  
their understanding of the aforementioned issues  
in mindfulness sessions , and that teachers have  
more ability to control their thoughts, behavior,  
feelings and emotions, which lead to their ability  
in planning and discipline, can make mindfulness  
treatment more effective for them.  
In fact, the mindfulness program is an  
organizer of the thoughts, feelings and behavior in  
which teachers are more successful due to their  
cognitive abilities. On the other hand, it can be  
stated that as far as the students are more  
involved in education, they are busier in education  
and doing homework. This could be a reason why  
they have been less able to take advantage of the  
mindfulness exercises. And due to the fact that  
mindfulness includes two types of formal  
exercises (training sessions with a coach) and  
informal (repetition and practice of all trained  
techniques of formal meetings in real life) so,  
teachers who have a higher age and intellectual  
development are expected to benefit more from  
non - formal exercises, and the effects of training  
these techniques are improved in their lives. The  
present study has some limitations that are useful to  
be mentioned in conclusion of the research findings.  
effective and increases the efficiency of the treatment,  
it is not available for all people because of high cost  
and being time consuming, as well as the  
unavailability of mindfulness specialists and coaches.  
The lack of ability to monitor practicing the tasks  
outside of training sessions (informal exercises) is  
another of the limitation of this study.  
Finally, given the results of the present study which  
shows the effectiveness of training techniques on  
teachers ' underlying performance, it is suggested,  
managers and school administrators have to help  
teachers improve their job performance in a manner  
that affects both psychological and social contexts,  
and considering the situation to hold the mindfulness  
classes for the students before the start of the  
educational year. Also, based on the results of this  
study, which shows a higher effectiveness of training  
techniques on improving the emotional impact of  
students compared to other academic performance  
administrators are suggested to improve the  
academic performance of students who are in contact  
With a series of emotions such as anxiety and  
worrisome causing them to react in a high level, to  
imply this method to control the emotional effects of  
students. And finally, it can be suggested that, due to  
the unavailability of specialist trainers to teach the  
techniques of mindfulness, as well as the high costs of  
holding the courses, the teachers ' job performance is  
better to be the top priority of schools and educational  
centers, to improve the effectiveness and train the  
teachers who do not have the necessary quality in  
their underlying job performance and in case of  
financial and technical ability of schools and  
educational centers, according to the effectiveness of  
this method on components of educational  
performance , respectively, its effects on improving  
the emotional effects, motivation, self-efficacy, lack of  
outcome control, to identify the students with such  
problems, and train  
them with mindfulness  
techniques based on the priority of their educational  
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