Journal of Educational and Management Studies  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 9(4): 16-24, December 25, 2019  
License: CC BY 4.0,  
ISSN: 2322-4770  
The role of organizational agility on the relationship between  
organizational information technology capabilities and competitive  
performance; case study: Mellat bank  
Roya Babazadehand and Saeed Jafari Titkanloo  
Faculty of Management, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran  
Email: s_jafari_t@imamreza.ac.ir  
ABSTRACT  
Original Article  
This study aimed to investigate the role of organizational agility in relation between  
organizational intelligence capabilities and competitive performance in Mellat Bank. This  
PII: S232247701900004-9  
research was descriptive survey. The community consists of two groups of experts of the  
Rec. 22 September, 2019  
central organization and managers of Mellat Bank Branches in Mashhad. In total, the  
Acc. 10 November, 2019  
population of this study was 367 people, and 225 people were selected using available  
Pub. 25 December, 2019  
sampling. The tool used in this research was a researched-based native-based questionnaire.  
Its factual validity, using the views of professors and experts, verified the structure through  
confirmatory factor analysis and its reliability through the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was  
examined and confirmed. Took The data analysis method was structural equations through  
the software PPS; the results of path analysis indicated that the IT capability of the  
organization has a positive and significant effect on market agility and its operation. Also,  
agility in operations can affect agility in the market and agility in the market can lead to high  
competitive performance.  
Keywords  
Competitive performance,  
Agility in operations,  
Agility in the market,  
The ability of information  
technology  
roles as a tool for creating value in business activities  
(Bernstein et al., 2016). Information technology plays  
an essential role in the development of agility,  
without which it would be impossible to achieve the  
speed and flexibility of agility concepts. The  
foundation of the agile organization is the integrity  
of the information system, technology, individuals,  
business processes and equipment in the Harmonic  
Organization to quickly respond to events and  
INTRODUCTION  
Today's world with such features as widespread  
change, increasing complexity, and increasing levels  
of competition create a dynamic environment for the  
organization, so that the success of organizations  
depends on the coherence and compatibility with  
such an environment. On the other hand, the severe  
changes in the economic environment and the high  
level of competition in recent years have made it  
necessary for agility to succeed. In today's  
environment, with organizations facing a global  
competitive environment, there is always a need for  
rooted changes and creative creativity. Also, the use  
of competitive performance is the most important  
factor in achieving them in the competitive  
advantages of the industry (Rezaian and Ashouri,  
2013).  
According to White, agile information systems  
are considered as an essential factor in the  
development and agility of the organization, and  
without them implementing speed and agility in the  
organization. It will be impossible (Saha et al., 2016).  
Information technology emerged as an essential  
element in developing countries such as Iran to  
support the need for genuine, systematic information  
in commerce and industry, and has taken important  
environmental  
changes.  
Agility  
wants  
the  
organization to rush and accelerate the integration of  
technology and staff with communication  
infrastructure to respond to changing customer  
needs in a market environment that is subject to  
constant and unpredictable changes (Nadkami and  
In other words, changes in today's business  
environments that stem from changes in customer  
needs lead to uncertainty in decision-makers, and  
organizations that focus on speed, more flexibility  
and investment accountability they are more likely to  
achieve their goals. Among the use of information  
and communication technologies in delivering  
services to increase productivity, flexibility and  
improve the performance of the organization, it is  
necessary in the IT era.  
Citation: Babazadeh R and Jafari Titkanloo S (2019). The role of organizational agility on the relationship between organizational information technology capabilities  
and competitive performance; case study: Mellat bank. J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 9(4): 16-24. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.29252/scil.2019.jems4  
16  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 9(4): 16-24, 2019  
On the other hand, in the face of growing  
Agility in the market: To reflect the  
effectiveness and effectiveness of the organization's  
actions to respond to changes in market patterns and  
flows. Operationally, this variable is measured  
through the following three components:  
1. Reaction speed relative to market changes  
2. Continuous monitoring of rivals  
3. Opportunity and exploitation of market  
consumer expectations of the banking system of the  
country, banks, including the Mellat Bank, face a  
variety of financial and operational constraints.  
Expensive advertising budgets, the necessity of  
building new branches, multiple banks and electronic  
banks, monitoring competitors' movements and  
timely response to it and, ultimately, macroeconomic  
problems of the country that have an undeniable  
effect on instability. There are many banking issues  
that Mellat Bank faces, like other banks. In such a  
situation, it is only possible to ensure the growth and  
survival of the bank by focusing on providing agile  
and quality services, and in some ways increasing the  
efficiency of banking operations and avoiding  
unnecessary costs for customers with marginal  
profitability. The In fact, the development of  
technology has made fundamental changes in the  
provision of services by banks, and the Mellat Bank,  
given its internal systems and its applied  
technologies, demonstrates flexibility in terms of  
environmental changes and competitive conditions,  
can agility in operations And agility in providing  
services and thereby enhance its competitive  
performance; indeed, the main issue of this research  
is that what is the effect of Mellat Banking  
Information Technology on agility and agility on the  
competitive performance of the Mellat Bank?  
IT capabilities: Bharayha (2000) believes that  
information technology capabilities are related to the  
ability of a company to mobilize and deploy IT-  
related resources in their integration with other  
resources and other capabilities (Faramarzi, 2016).  
Relationship between variables  
In order to achieve both types of agility, it is  
imperative to process the volume and extent of  
distributed information in an efficient way and  
quickly apply flexible business processes and  
efficiently coordinate tasks between dispersed  
geographic units. These activities can be enhanced  
with a number of IT capabilities (Roberts and Grover,  
2012). Based on this theory, IT capabilities can  
potentially help promote the development of fit in  
the organization with the environment; therefore,  
information technology can be a major ability to  
create organizational agility by integrating with  
monitoring, support, Learning, integration and  
review (Weill et al., 2002). As a result, ICT capabilities  
are expected to be synergistic and one of the main  
factors influencing agility of the organization in two  
dimensions is agility in the market and agility in  
operations. For example, through these capabilities,  
it can be ensured that competitors are closely  
monitored and sufficient information is provided  
from customers for use in managerial decisions.  
Strong IT-enabled companies will be able to set up  
internal operations to respond to potential changes  
in the business environment, and will benefit from  
investing in the market with new or improved value  
propositions as a result of focusing on their  
capabilities. However, the response to change often  
means that coordination of activities in different  
units or functions is required. Also, companies with a  
strong IT capability will be able to constantly assess  
and monitor the environment and improve their  
knowledge base, engaging or not to participate in  
achieving more agility in the market and agility in  
operations (Lavie and Rosenkopf, 2006).  
Definitions of variables  
Competitive  
performance:  
Competitive  
performance represents a set of ideal criteria for  
innovative performance, product performance, and  
sales marketing (Shan and Jolly, 2015). Competitive  
performance implies competitive advantage, in so far  
as the organization is able to develop itself more than  
Organizational Agility: Many researchers have  
worked in this field, and each has provided several  
definitions of agility, here the accepted definition  
refers to the ability of the producer to react quickly  
to sudden and unpredictable changes (Amirnezhad  
Operational agility: Defining agility in  
operations on theoretical foundations involves two  
basic concepts: responding to changes (unpredictable  
and unexpected) with appropriate methods at the  
right time and exploiting change and taking  
advantage of change as an opportunity (Khoshlahn  
Operational agility, in addition to facilitating  
faster adaptation of domestic business processes,  
enables IT organizations to achieve better business  
17  
Babazadeh and Jafari Titkanloo, 2019  
processes through robust sequencing and rapid  
In a research entitled "Effect of operational  
agility on organizational performance in service  
organizations", it was concluded that organizational  
measures, technology, customer empowerment and  
human resources (with the highest impact) as  
organizational agility dimensions have a significant  
effect on the performance of organizations (Arjlou et  
business operations throughout the value chain.  
Wealth and large processes lead companies to  
enhance their participation and use of IT capabilities  
to search faster and integrate their competencies  
into the value chain. In addition, this kind of agility  
makes the knowledge upgraded in the organization  
and improves by creating interconnections in the  
virtual markets and making informed and quick  
decisions in the marketplace and investing in it (Zott  
In  
a
study entitled "Investigating the  
Relationship between Information Technology and  
Organizational Agility in the Mahabad Agricultural  
Bank", it was concluded that there is no relationship  
between Flexible Information Technology at the  
SADERAT Bank of Mahabad (Toure and Khalili, 2016).  
In a study entitled "Investigating the effect of  
It is generally believed that organizational agility  
is very beneficial for organizations by enabling  
organizations to restructure and regulate their  
activities in line with changing business  
environments, which ultimately lead to superior  
performance over competitors. By enhancing  
organizational agility, organizations will be better  
able to identify competitive opportunities in their  
target market and gain a better place by utilizing the  
competencies and resources needed to exploit these  
opportunities (Sambamurthy et al., 2003). Agility in  
the market leads to the benefits of being first  
through increased product customization, lower  
delivery performance, and reduced response time. In  
other words, high agility in operations helps  
organizations to respond to their changing needs by  
creating a coalition, improving operational flexibility,  
lowering costs, and increasing customer retention. In  
fact, organizational agility enables organizations to  
invest in market changes by providing new value and  
helping improve internal activities and align with  
these changes in the market (Lu and Ramamurthy,  
2011). Organizations will be able to enhance their  
organizational agility. Which expands its competitive  
practices and gains more in competitive  
environments. As a result, both organizational agility  
In a research entitled "The Role of Technological  
Innovation Capabilities in Promoting Innovation  
Performance of Knowledge Based Companies", it was  
concluded that the capabilities of strategic planning,  
R and D, resource allocation, marketing and learning  
can significantly improve the performance Improve  
In a research entitled "Influence of Information  
Technology Functionality on Performance with the  
Organizational Agility Intermediary in Bank of  
Commerce", it was concluded that IT capabilities  
could affect organizational performance through  
organizational agility (Kashani Nejad and Rastghoo  
organizational  
learning  
on  
organizational  
performance with regard to organizational agility  
mediators", it was concluded that organizational  
agility has an impact on organizational performance  
In a research entitled "Influence of Information  
Technology Abilities on Business Agility", it was  
concluded that the four architectural capabilities,  
infrastructure, human resources and communication  
resources are the dimensions of the capability of  
information technology as well as the three sensors,  
responsiveness and learning Dimensions constitute  
organizational agility and there is a meaningful  
relationship between the capabilities of information  
technology and organization agility (Magnificient et  
In a study entitled "Designing Operational and  
Market Agility Modeling to Improve Competitive  
Performance", it has been concluded that dynamic  
capabilities have a significant effect on agility in the  
market and operational agility (Elahe and Osanlou,  
2014).  
In  
a
study entitled "Investigating the  
Relationship between the Data Dimension (Database)  
of Management Information Management Systems  
and Organizational Agility in Sirjan Higher  
Education Centers", it was concluded that there is a  
positive and significant relationship between the  
dimension of data in management information  
systems with organizational agility (Ghanadzadeh  
In a study titled "Challenges for Organizational  
Agility and Competitive Performance," for  
organizations with small and medium resources with  
limited resources, agility of the organization makes  
these organizations more resistant to the changing  
environment outside. Open your doors to serious  
opportunities. In fact, agility is effective on their  
competitive performance (Appelbaum et al., 2017).  
18  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 9(4): 16-24, 2019  
A study entitled "Organizational agility and HR  
Oriented Mediation", it was concluded that due to  
the impact of information technology capabilities on  
marketability and the impact of market orientation  
on the organization's innovative performance,  
Information technology can have an impact on  
innovative performance (Wang et al., 2013).  
strategies in competitive performance" concluded  
that organizational agility and human resources  
strategies can create beneficial changes and affect  
of New Delhi's staff and  
a
researcher-made  
In the conceptual model of this research, the  
competitive performance of the dependent variable  
and the ability of the enterprise IT technology are  
independent variables, in which two agility variables  
in the market and agility in the role of the role play.  
Agility in the market refers to the agility of out-of-  
company actions, and agility in operations to agility  
in internal organization actions. These relationships  
are based on research (Mikalef and Pateli, 2017) in  
Figure 1.  
questionnaire was used to collect data. The results of  
this research indicate that organizational agility and  
human resource efficiency are important and can  
affect the organization's ultimate competitive  
performance.  
In a research entitled "Dynamic Information  
Technology Performance and Its Effect on  
Competitive Performance", it was concluded that in  
addition to confirming the role of intermediary  
agility in operations and market agility in the  
relationship between information technology  
capabilities and competitive performance, agility in  
operations It also has an impact on market agility  
Research hypotheses  
The ability of Mellat Banking Information  
Technology has a positive and significant effect on  
agility in the market.  
In a study entitled "Recognizing the Relationship  
between Information Technology Functionality and  
Operational Agility through Multiple Approaches", it  
was concluded that IT capabilities could lead to  
agility in operations (Gong et al., 2017).  
A study entitled "Operational Capacity Based on  
the Capacity of Information Technology" concluded  
that the ability of information technology in an  
organization could lead to agility in its operations  
The ability of Mellat Banking Information  
Technology has a positive and significant effect on  
agility in operations.  
Agility in the operations of the Mellat Bank has  
a positive and significant effect on agility in the  
market.  
Agility in the nation's bank market has a  
positive and significant effect on competitive  
performance.  
Agility in Mellat operations has a positive and  
significant effect on competitive performance.  
A
research  
entitled  
Organizational  
"Information  
Ability and  
Competitiveness,  
Organizational Agility and Environmental Effects on  
Performance Extreme" came to the conclusion that  
in state-owned banks, innovation has a direct  
relationship with organizational agility, and agility  
has a positive impact on the performance of  
organizations (Ravichandran et al., 2007).  
Agility in  
the market  
Competitive  
performance  
Organizational  
IT capability  
A study entitled "Agility Enhancement with  
Information Technology Capabilities" concluded that  
timely information sharing through improving the  
stability and performance of the supply chain would  
enhance the agility of the organization. The  
community of this research is staffed by the  
Shanghai Insurance Bureau and uses a questionnaire  
to collect information. The IT structure consists of  
three components of system capabilities, the range of  
technology, and the IT coalitions, which examine its  
impact on agility, which includes four components of  
speed, accountability, flexibility and competence (Li  
Agility in  
operation  
Figure 1. Conceptual model of the research adapted  
METHODOLOGY  
This research is based on the nature and type of  
research from the point where it intends to  
investigate the impact of negative factors and  
In  
a research entitled "IT Influence and  
Innovation Performance: With the Role of Market  
19  
Babazadeh and Jafari Titkanloo, 2019  
negative oral advertising on brand change with the  
equations, which is 5 times the total number of  
cylinders (45). For this purpose, 225 questionnaires  
were distributed among the sample members and  
based on statistical analysis using SPSS and PLS  
software.  
In order to collect data, we use a standard  
questionnaire based on the Likert scale of five  
options (I completely disagree, 1 disagree, 2; I have no  
opinion; 3 agree; 4; and I totally agree; 5) as the main  
tool for collecting Data has been used. The  
questionnaire consists of two parts; the first part  
consists of the questions related to the individual  
information of the respondents, and the second part  
includes the questions related to the variables of the  
research, which was used to ensure the validity of the  
questions from the guidance and opinions of the  
professors and relevant experts.  
role of mistrust and negative emotions. It is a type of  
applied research and since it is used in explaining the  
conceptual model Different research has been used  
and a model has been developed. Therefore, it could  
be said that this research is also of a type of  
developmental research. Since the purpose of this  
research is to describe the circumstances and  
phenomena examined in order to better understand  
the existing conditions and contribute to the  
decision-making process, this research, based on how  
the data can be obtained, can be described as  
descriptive and It also counted a survey. Because it  
seeks to assess the impact between the variables of  
the organization's IT capability and agility in the  
market, agility in operations and competitive  
performance.  
The statistical population of this research  
includes all relevant managers and experts in the  
Central Bank of Mellat Bank of Mashhad (2 × 32 × 46).  
The heads and authorities of the Mellat Bank  
Mashhad branch offices and facilities (121 × 107 × 3). In  
fact, it can be said that the society consists of two  
groups of officials and experts of the Mellat Bank  
(Figure 2) and the second group of managers of  
Mellat Bank Branches in Mashhad. In total, the total  
population of the survey is 367 people.  
RESULTS  
Frequency and frequency of respondents based on  
gender show that men constitute the highest  
percentage of respondents (72.9%) and women make  
up 27.1% of respondents. Age descriptive statistics  
show that the highest number of respondents in the  
age group is between 31-40 years old and the lowest  
in the age group of under 21-30 years old. In addition,  
in the first part of the questionnaire, customers were  
asked to indicate their level of education. 4% were  
competent and lower, 44.9% had undergraduate  
degrees, 24% had undergraduate and 27.1% had  
doctoral degrees. The question of the work  
experience of the subjects showed that 8.4% of the  
subjects were less than 5 years old, 48% between 5 to  
10 years and 43.6% more than 10 years of work  
experience.  
Test of hypotheses  
Significant evaluation of Pyala's parameters in  
the Smart Pialas software is done through the  
automatic startup algorithm or BT. This algorithm is  
created by re-sampling or replacing the original  
sample. This command consists of samples with the  
same number of units as the original sample. The  
number of retries must be specified by the user. The  
default value of the software is 200, but a higher  
number (like 500) can provide a more reasonable  
estimate of standard errors. The nonparametric  
automated setup procedure in the PLS-PM model is  
the basis for statistical inference. One of the  
correlation indices in the structural model is the  
significance of the path coefficients.  
Figure 2. Significance of path coefficients (t statistics)  
In this research, a sampling method is used to  
select the sample. The reason for using this sampling  
method is that, since not all experts and authorities  
participate in answering, the questionnaires are  
distributed electronically and paper to the people  
who are available. The sample size is based on 5 to 10  
times the number of items in the structural  
Significance of the complementary paths is  
significant for the sign of the beta coefficient of the  
20  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 9(4): 16-24, 2019  
model. If the obtained value is above the minimum of  
The summary of the results of the hypotheses is  
presented in Table 1.  
the statistics at the confidence level, that relationship  
or hypothesis is confirmed. At 90%, 95% and 99%, this  
value is compared with the minimum statistic of 1.64,  
1.96, and 2.58, respectively. As can be seen, Fig. 8  
shows the statistical values of t. The basis for the  
rejection or confirmation of the hypotheses will then  
be based on a 95% confidence level.  
As can be seen, Figure 3 shows the structural  
path coefficients. The path coefficients are the same  
as standard beta in linear regression. The path  
coefficients should be considered in magnitude, sign  
and meaningful. The positive path coefficients  
(positive beta) indicate the direct relationship  
between the intrinsic and extraneous hidden  
variables. In contrast, negative path coefficients  
(negative beta) indicate the inverse relationship  
between the intrinsic and extraneous hidden  
variables. This value is greatly indicative of the  
power of the relationship, which, with the  
establishment of indirect relations, reduces the  
magnitude of the beta coefficient. As can be seen,  
Figure 3 shows the standard estimation coefficients  
that indicate the effect of each variable on the other  
variable.  
Figure 3. Structural path coefficients  
Table 1. the result of the clearance and rejection of the main hypothesis  
Meaningful  
( statistics Y t )  
Path  
coefficient  
confidence  
level  
Hypothesis S  
Results  
Organizational IT capability  
Agility in the market  
Organizational IT capability  
Agility in operation  
1
2.694  
0.372  
95%  
95%  
95%  
95%  
95%  
Confirmation  
Confirmation  
Confirmation  
Confirmation  
Confirmation  
2
3
4
5
27.642  
2.461  
2.787  
6.352  
0.88  
0.533  
0.215  
0.774  
Agility in operation  
Agility in the market  
Agility in the market  
Competitive performance  
Agility in operation  
Competitive performance  
degree of market agility. The third wave of  
information technology research suggests that  
although IT capability leads to a high degree of  
market agility, this relationship is influenced by the  
degree of assurance of circumstances and events.  
The first goal of this study was to investigate the  
impact of IT on agility in the market. Based on the  
results of the data analysis, the T-value of this path  
was 2.694 which indicates the significance of this  
effect. This result is in line with the results of the  
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION  
Information technology is a key factor in promoting  
market agility and the ability to drive or hinder  
market agility. A review of the three-wave literature  
on various research on the relationship between IT  
capability and market agility. The first wave of  
research shows that IT capability not only does not  
help to promote agility of the business, but also in  
some cases causes damage. The second wave of  
research suggests that IT capability brings a high  
21  
Babazadeh and Jafari Titkanloo, 2019  
customer  
service,  
leading  
to  
competitive  
performance. Other researchers have suggested  
competitive performance of the organization as a  
competitive advantage with the perspective of value  
and quality, and its main elements are axial cost, core  
product, and core services. Agility in operation can  
affect competitive performance. The final goal of this  
study was to investigate the effect of agility on  
operations on competitive performance. Based on the  
results of the data analysis, the value of the T-test  
was 6.352, which means confirmation of the last  
hypothesis. This result is in line with the results of  
Information technology is in fact a kind of  
technology that is inclusive and its unique feature is  
its inclusion and necessity. The range of changes  
resulting from this phenomenon is very diverse and  
involves the substitution of information instead of  
energy or manpower in the industrial sector up to  
the change in the internal sector of the service from  
personnel services to social services and distribution  
systems. Operational agility also refers to the  
responsiveness, efficiency, and effectiveness of the  
organization's efforts to modify and review the  
internal operations of the organization when needed.  
The second goal of this study was to investigate the  
effect of the organization's IT capability on agility in  
the operation. Based on the results of the data  
analysis, the T-statistic was 276.22, the second  
hypothesis of the research was confirmed. This result  
The agility in the operation refers to the  
reaction, effectiveness and effectiveness of the  
organization's efforts to modify and review the  
internal operations of the organization when needed.  
Agility in operations can have a positive effect on  
agility in the market. The third goal of this study was  
to investigate the agility of operations in agility on  
the market. Based on the results, the T-value was  
obtained at 2.461. Given that this value is greater  
than 1.96, this assumption is confirmed and agility in  
the operation has a significant effect on agility in the  
market at 95% confidence level. This result is in line  
Recommendations  
It is recommended to confirm the first  
hypothesis:  
- Focused on the use of ICT capabilities.  
- If banks are to succeed in confronting their  
challenges and issues, their management training  
should focus more on using the IT capabilities of the  
organization to influence the agility of the market,  
and by discovering the barriers to this important  
action Basic things to do.  
- It is suggested that objective variables be  
measured such as deposit absorption, profitability,  
attracting customers, reducing claims, increasing  
customer etc. Information technology capabilities,  
such as developmental issues, have a strong impact  
on senior management support.  
Considering the confirmation of the second  
hypothesis of the research it is suggested:  
- Management of Banks. Educational Strategies  
Improve the IT capabilities and adapt them to the  
needs and expectations of employees to take into  
account the capabilities of the new technology and  
pay more attention to qualitative aspects than IT  
capabilities to agility in the operations of staff.  
Considering the confirmation of the third  
hypothesis of the research it is suggested:  
By creating workshops to increase employee  
agility, they will increase the agility of operations and  
agility in the market. In this process, arrangements  
should be made to strengthen monitoring during  
implementation.  
Competitive performance represents a set of  
desirable criteria for innovative performance,  
product performance, and sales marketing.  
Competitive performance implies competitive  
advantage, such that the organization is able to  
develop more than competitors. This competitive  
performance can be affected by agility in the  
marketplace. Based on the results of the study, the T-  
statistic in this path was 2.787 and, given the  
significance of this T-statistic, the fourth hypothesis  
of the research is confirmed. This result is consistent  
with the results of the research (Mikalef and Pateli,  
Considering the confirmation of the fourth  
hypothesis of the research it is suggested:  
- Employers will attract employees who can agility in  
the market, which will affect the competitive  
performance of the bank. Therefore, the bank should  
increase competitive performance by taking into  
The competitive advantage enhances the  
manufacturer's ability to provide a high level of  
22  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 9(4): 16-24, 2019  
organizational agility mediator in Trade Bank. Modern  
Engineering Engineering, 5 (1), 1-16.  
account the competitive environment and economic  
environment.  
Khoshlahn, M. and Ardabili, F. S. (2016). The role of organizational  
agility and transformational leadership in service recovery  
prediction. "Proceedings - Social and Behavioral Sciences",  
230 (1), 142-149  
In the context of research suggestions from this  
research, it can be argued that this research has been  
done in the field of banking. It is suggested that such  
research be carried out in other industries and the  
results should be compared with the results of this  
study. It is recommended that in future research,  
technical and managerial capabilities.  
Lavie D., and Rosenkopf, L. (2006). Balancing exploration and  
exploitation in alliance formation. "Academy of management  
journal", 49 (4), 797-818.  
Li, G., Lin, Y., Wang, S. and Yan, H. (2006), "Enhancing agility by  
timely sharing of supply information", Supply Chain  
Management,  
Vol.  
11  
No.  
5,  
pp.  
425-435.  
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