Journal of Educational and Management Studies  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(3): 48-54, September 25, 2020  
License: CC BY 4.0,  
ISSN: 2322-4770  
The relationship between social support and quality of  
working life with self-efficacy of high school principals  
in Izeh city, Iran  
Monireh Mokhtarzadeh  
Department of English Language and Linguistics, Birjand University, Iran  
ABSTRACT  
Original Article  
The purpose of this study was to explain the relationship between social support and quality of  
working life with self-efficacy of Izeh high school principals. In terms of nature and objectives,  
PII: S232247702000006-10  
Rec. 02 August, 2020  
this study was a field study with correlational design. The statistical population of this study  
Acc. 15 September, 2020  
was the principals of Izeh secondary schools. In this study, a statistical sample of 250 people  
Pub. 25 September, 2020  
(125 men and 125 women who were selected by using random sampling method) was used to  
Keywords  
Social Support,  
Quality of Working Life,  
Self-Efficacy,  
Managers,  
Izeh  
collect data from Phillips social support questionnaires, Shirer's self-efficacy, and Walton's  
quality of life, and its reliability was confirmed. To analyze the information obtained from the  
questionnaires, Pearson’s regression and simple correlation coefficient were used. The results  
showed that the relationship between social support and quality of working life with self-  
efficacy of high school principals Izeh have been significant.  
environment where managers can work with more  
desire and comfort, to achieve organizational goals  
through using their maximum power (Kamalian et al.,  
2010). One of the influencing factors on managers,  
which attracted the attention of many researchers, is  
self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is one of the variables that  
by increasing the stressful effects of work on people  
in the workplace, increases happiness, and indirectly  
increases the level of satisfaction with people's lives  
Perceived self-efficacy is not a measure of  
personal skills, but means that one has come to  
believe that one can perform tasks well in different  
situations with whatever skill one has. Self-reported  
ideas determine how people feel, how they think, how  
they motivate themselves, and how they behave  
INTRODUCTION  
The estimate of the return on investment in  
education is the third millennium is the age of  
management. Every group activity requires  
leadership and management to organize and lead the  
group's efforts to achieve specific goals. The success  
of different organizations, especially educational  
institutions, depends on efficient and effective  
managers. Today, the lack of financial funding to  
cover the current training costs has made  
educational managers one of the most vulnerable to  
pressure. The pressure of the educational  
environment, especially the psychological pressure  
on the principals, affect not only the principal  
himself, but also the whole function of the  
educational system, so the principals’ health and the  
efficiency of the schools cannot be separated from  
each other. As a result, it is necessary to pay attention  
to recognizing the pressure of this group in the form  
of maintaining human resources in the field of  
human resource management and provide an  
Bandura (1997) argues that self-efficacy is a  
constructive ability by which a person's cognitive,  
social, emotional, and behavioral skills are effectively  
organized to achieve different goals (Bandura, 1997).  
Bandura (2000) has defined self-efficacy as people's  
To cite this paper: Mokhtarzadeh M (2020). The relationship between social support and quality of working life with self-efficacy of high school principals in Izeh city,  
Iran. J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(3): 48-54. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.29252/scil.2020.jems6  
48  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(3): 48-54-, 2020  
beliefs in their ability to perform tasks successfully.  
Gates et al., (1999) also defined self-efficacy beliefs as  
consequence of the process of comparing,  
combining, and evaluating information about an  
individual's abilities that affect his or her choice and  
level of effort to perform tasks (Abdullahi and Nave  
Ibrahim, 2006). Bandura (2000) argues that perceived  
self-efficacy affects analytical strategies and  
subsequently the organizational performance of  
managers in an organizational environment.  
Although there is little practical research on the  
self-efficacy of school principals, the results are  
interesting. Research by Zimmerman (1995) has  
shown that self-efficacy beliefs are good predictors of  
managers' behaviors. Rather, they control their  
personal expectations to meet the conditions and  
requirements (Nosrati Seraidashti, 2009). One of the  
variables associated with self-efficacy is the quality of  
working life. Robbins described the quality of  
working life as a process by which an organization  
responds to the needs of employees by expanding  
mechanisms to allow them to fully participate in the  
decisions that shape their lives at work. Quality of  
working life is a multidimensional structure and may  
not be a universal and immortal structure (Love and  
May, 1998). In this regard, a high-quality work  
environment is known as a basic condition and  
background for automation and the empowerment of  
human resources.  
It has been observed in most researches that  
people's self-efficacy beliefs can be more predictable  
than other motivational variables such as self-  
concept or self-esteem, and even in some cases more  
than variables such as talent, achievement, major and  
job selection, successful completion of a profession  
and participating in activities (Pajares 1996; Schunk  
et al., 1987). Self-efficacy beliefs affect people's  
thinking patterns and emotional responses. As a  
result of these effects, self-efficacy beliefs are strong  
determinants and predictors of performance. For  
these reasons, Bandura argues that self-efficacy  
beliefs play a key role in people's lives (Bandura,  
1986). Research has shown that beliefs about ability  
have a positive effect on the use of performance, and  
people with high self-efficacy use more strategies  
than those who are self-doubt (Biabangard, 2007).  
According to the above, examining the  
relationship between social support and quality of life  
with self-efficacy of managers is of special  
importance and necessity and its results will help to  
recognize the relationship between social support  
and quality of life and self-efficacy and provide  
appropriate solutions. Also, despite the fact that the  
literature on job self-efficacy is expanding, according  
to the available information, the self-efficacy of high  
school principals has received less attention from  
researchers and the factors predicting job self-  
efficacy of principals have not been identified.  
Among the mechanisms of employers and  
managers, none is more influential than people's  
beliefs about their ability to control performance  
when faced with important life events. Self-efficacy  
beliefs affect how people feel, think, how they  
motivate themselves, and how they behave (Bandura,  
The results of this study help planners,  
designers and teachers, policy makers, and  
programmers to design and develop more credible  
and secure programs for students to use in  
cyberspace by knowing more about their audience, as  
well as identifying the impact of influential factors on  
managers’ self-efficacy.  
person's belief that he or she can successfully  
perform certain tasks and achieve reliable results.  
According to Bandura, special expectations of  
efficiency play a more vital role in human motivation  
and action than other expectations. In the context of  
Bandura's self-efficacy theory, it is stated that people  
with strong beliefs about their abilities show more  
effort and perseverance in performing their duties  
than those who are skeptical about them (Biabangard,  
2007). Today, self-efficacy beliefs are considered as  
one of the most important and main factors in  
explaining human behaviors (Bandura 1997).  
Social support and self-efficacy  
The results of determining the relationship  
between social support, academic motivation, and  
self-efficacy of high school students in Tabriz and  
Azarshahr did show that there is a relationship  
between social support and academic motivation  
with self-efficacy (Yar Mohammadzadeh and  
The results of the role of mediating self-efficacy  
in the relationship between social support and  
participation in physical activity of students of  
49  
Mokhtarzadeh 2020  
Tehran University of Science and Research declared a  
the internet. Haslam et al. (2006) stated a meaningful  
relationship between the variables of self-efficacy and  
social support.  
positive and significant relationship between social  
support and self-efficacy with participation in  
Also, in a study of the relationship between self-  
efficacy and emotional intelligence and perceived  
social support among students of Tehran University,  
self-efficacy was directly and significantly associated  
with all components of perceived emotional  
intelligence and perceived social support (Rostami et  
al., 2015). In another study, the relationship between  
perceived social support and academic self-efficacy  
with adaptation presented a significant relationship  
between perceived social support and self-efficacy  
with social adjustment. In a regression analysis using  
simultaneous input, the predictor variables explained  
A study of the relationship between social  
support and self-efficacy among employees of  
Quality of working life and self-efficacy  
There is a body of investigations regarding the  
quality of working life and self-efficacy. In a study  
entitled "Relationship between Motivation to  
Progress and Quality of Work Life with Self-efficacy  
of Employees of Selected Hospitals in Mazandaran  
Province with Multidisciplinary Analysis and Role of  
Adjustment of Organizational Ownership", there is a  
relationship between work quality of life and self-  
efficacy of selected hospital staff of Mazandaran  
Hemmati (2015) in a study entitled “Investigating the  
relationship between quality of working life and self-  
efficacy of primary school teachers in Hamadan”,  
tried to show that there is a relationship between the  
quality of working life and the self-efficacy of primary  
school teachers in Hamadan. Ahmadi and Eghtesadi  
military organizations perfectly expressed  
a
relationship between social support and self-efficacy  
among employees of military organizations (Zamani  
et al., 2015). The study entitled "The Relationship  
between Perceived Social Support and Student Self-  
Efficacy", Tamanaifar and Leith (2013) stated that  
there is a significant relationship between perceived  
social support and self-efficacy. The results of the  
regression analysis showed that family-perceived  
support predicts self-efficacy. The results of a study  
of the relationship between self-efficacy, social  
support, and optimism in predicting mental well-  
being to develop a structural model in students,  
demonstrated an increase in self-efficacy, social  
support, and students' optimism, a sense of well-  
being and mindfulness in them (Shabani et al., 2012).  
The relationship between social support and self-  
efficacy in female nurses of the psychiatric group in  
(2014) in  
a study of the relationship between  
emotional intelligence and quality of working life  
with self-efficacy of Shiraz education staff presented  
the results between emotional intelligence and  
quality of working life with self-efficacy of Shiraz  
education staff. The results also showed that there  
was a relationship between all components of work  
quality of life and self-efficacy of Shiraz education  
staff. Nobakht (2011) in his study on the relationship  
between quality of working life and self-efficacy of  
primary school teachers in Golpayegan city  
demonstrated a positive and significant relationship  
between quality of working life and self-efficacy of  
teachers. The study of "The relationship between self-  
efficacy with emotional intelligence and perceived  
social support in Tehran University students", we can  
track down the fact that the components of social  
support family support together 15% of Variance  
explained self-efficacy, and family support had the  
highest correlation coefficient with self-efficacy  
China illustrated that there is  
a
significant  
relationship between social support and self-efficacy  
Yusliza (2012) in a study entitled “Self-efficacy,  
Perceived Social Support and Psychological  
Adjustment in International Undergraduate Students  
in a Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia”  
found that self-efficacy and social support increase  
students’ adjustment. Additionally, Chu (2010) in a  
study entitled “Tangible family support and self-  
efficacy” showed that tangible family support for  
children is related to their self-efficacy in the use of  
Hypotheses  
Accordingly, the present study is an  
investigation for the following hypotheses:  
1- There is a relationship between social support  
and quality of life and self-efficacy of high school  
principals in Izeh city.  
50  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(3): 48-54-, 2020  
2- There is a relationship between social support  
principals in Izeh city. As can be seen in Table 1, the  
total average of social support variable for high  
school principals in Izeh is 19.30 and its standard  
deviation is 3.09. These results show that the level of  
social support of high school principals in Izeh is  
higher than average. The average of social support  
variable of male principals of Izeh secondary schools  
is 17.89 and its standard deviation is 2.90, and the  
average of social support variable of female principals  
of Izeh secondary schools is 20.52 and its standard  
deviation is 2.70. According to these results, the total  
average of social support among female principals is  
higher than that of male principals of Izeh secondary  
schools.  
and self-efficacy of high school principals in Izeh city.  
3- There is a relationship between the quality of  
life and self-efficacy of high school principals in Izeh  
city.  
METHODOLOGY  
In terms of collecting data, the researcher used a  
correlational research method. The statistical  
population of this study includes all primary school  
principals in Izeh. The sample in this study includes  
250 managers (125 women and 125 men) in Izeh. This  
number of sample individuals will be selected by a  
simple random sampling method from Izeh  
secondary school principals. In addition, in this study,  
the following questionnaires have been used to  
collect information:  
Table1. Statistics of Social Support Variable among  
High School Principals  
In the present study, the self-efficacy  
assessment of Shirer's questionnaire will be used.  
This questionnaire has 17 questions and its purpose is  
to measure the level of self-efficacy in people. The  
reliability of this questionnaire has been reported in a  
study conducted by Moghimi Fam et al. (2003) a =  
82% and the obtained alpha is satisfactory. In Barati  
and Ahmadi (2006) research, the reliability coefficient  
of this test was obtained through the Spearman-  
Brown method at 0.76 and with an unequal length at  
0.76 and by using the method of halving Guttman  
equal to 0.76. The 27-question questionnaire was also  
used to measure the quality of working life, in which  
Walton's questionnaire was used to measure the  
quality of life of eight components and the  
Additionally, Phillips questionnaire (1977) was used to  
measure social support. The Phillips questionnaire  
has 23 questions and its purpose is to measure the  
level of social support in people. In this research, in  
order to analyze the data, descriptive statistics  
methods such as mean, standard deviation,  
minimum, maximum, and frequency table are used,  
and to test the hypotheses, Pearson's simple  
correlation coefficient and regression are used.  
Men  
125  
17.89  
2.90  
12  
22  
Total Social  
Support  
Women  
Total  
125  
20.52  
19.20  
2.70  
3.09  
14  
12  
30  
30  
250  
The table  
2 shows the frequency, mean,  
standard deviation, minimum and maximum scores  
obtained in the quality of working life variable among  
the principals of Izeh secondary schools. As can be  
seen in Table 2, the total mean of working quality of  
life variable of high school principals in Izeh is 19.92  
and its standard deviation is 15.56. These results  
show that the quality of the working life of high  
school principals in Izeh city is average. The mean  
quality of working life variable of male principals of  
Izeh secondary schools is 86.54 and its standard  
deviation is 13.40, and the mean quality of working  
life variable of female principals of Izeh secondary  
schools is 97.84 and its standard deviation is 15.57.  
The table  
3 shows the frequency, mean,  
standard deviation, minimum, and maximum scores  
obtained in the self-efficacy variable among Izeh  
secondary school principals. As can be seen in Table  
3, the total mean of the self-efficacy variable of Izeh  
secondary school principals is 64.84 and its standard  
deviation is 8.66. These results show that the self-  
efficacy rate of Izeh secondary school principals is  
moderate. Also, the mean of self-efficacy variable of  
male principals of Izeh secondary schools is 63.04 and  
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  
The table 1 shows the frequency, mean, standard  
deviation, minimum and maximum scores obtained  
in the variable of social support among high school  
51  
Mokhtarzadeh 2020  
its standard deviation is 7.88 and the mean of self-  
At the same time, the probability of regression  
coefficients shows that social support with a beta  
coefficient of 0.45 and a quality of working life with a  
beta coefficient of 0.18 can predict school principals'  
self-efficacy but among the two variables, predicting  
social support is the best predictor of managers' self-  
efficacy.  
efficacy variable of female principals of Izeh  
secondary schools is 66.65 and its standard deviation  
is 9.05. These results show that the self-efficacy of  
female principals is higher than that of male  
principals of Izeh secondary schools. Accordingly,  
hypothesis 1 focusing on the relationship between  
social support and quality of working life with the  
self-efficacy of school principals is attested.  
Table 4. Multivariate Correlation Coefficients between  
Social Support and Quality of Working Life with Self-  
efficacy of School Principals  
Table 2. Statistics of Quality of Working Life Variable  
among School Principals  
Total  
Quality  
of  
Working  
Life  
B= -0.45  
t= 7.78  
p= 0.001  
Men  
125  
86.54  
13.40  
64  
114  
women  
Total  
125  
97.84  
92.19  
15.57  
15.56  
66  
64  
127  
127  
250  
B=0.18  
t=3.16  
p=0.02  
Table 3. Statistics of Self- Efficacy Variable among  
School Principals  
Hypothesis 2: There is a relationship between  
social support and self-efficacy of Izeh city school  
principals. The table below shows the relationship  
between social support and self-efficacy of Izeh high  
school principals in terms of Pearson's simple  
correlation coefficient.  
Men  
125  
63.04  
7.88  
49  
79  
Women  
Total  
125  
66.65  
64.84  
9.05  
8.66  
45  
45  
83  
83  
250  
Table 5. The Relationship between Social Support and  
Self-efficacy of School Principals by Pearson Simple  
Correlation Coefficient  
Table 4 shows the coefficients of multivariate  
correlation between social support and quality of  
working life with self-efficacy of Izeh secondary school  
principals in the inter method. As can be seen in Table  
4, the analysis of regression by the inter method  
shows the multiple correlations between social  
support and quality of working life with the self-  
efficacy of Izeh school principals MR = 0.545 and p <  
0.001 at p < 0.05 is significant. These results show that  
there is a significant relationship between social  
support and quality of working life and self-efficacy of  
Izeh school principals. In other words, through the  
variables between social support and quality of  
working life, it is possible to predict 30% variance of  
the self-efficacy criteria of Izeh school principals.  
Therefore, the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the  
main research hypothesis (H1) is confirmed.  
Self-efficacy of Izeh High School Principals  
Variable  
Correlation  
Coefficient  
Significance  
Level  
Frequency  
Social  
Support  
250  
0.52  
p= 0.001  
As can be seen in Table 5, the correlation  
coefficient between social support and self-efficacy of  
Izeh school principals is r = 0.299 and p = 0.001,  
which is significant at p<0.05. These results show  
that there is a significant relationship between social  
support and self-efficacy of Izeh city school  
principals. That is, the increase in the social support  
score is accompanied by an increase in the self-  
efficacy score of Izeh city school principals.  
Therefore, the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the  
second research hypothesis (H2) is confirmed.  
52  
J. Educ. Manage. Stud., 10(3): 48-54-, 2020  
Hypothesis 3: There is a relationship between  
the quality of working life and the self-efficacy of  
high school principals in Izeh city.  
According to the results of this study, the  
quality of working life is significantly related to the  
self-efficacy of school principals in Izeh. The results  
obtained from the test of this hypothesis are similar  
order for self-efficacy, sustainability, and retention of  
experienced and skilled workforce, attention to the  
quality of working life in education requires the  
attention of senior management of the Ministry of  
Education and the Islamic Republic. In this regard,  
according to the needs of education staff at different  
levels of work, including material and professional  
needs, the quality of life of their work can be reached  
to the desired level and cause more self-efficacy of  
employees in education. Given the conditions and  
constraints in the environment, it is possible to  
create a sense of inefficiency among employees,  
teachers, and educators, and this thought has a  
negative effect on their job performance and quality  
of work. This feeling of inefficiency for the education  
organization can cost problems such as delayed work  
and dissatisfaction with the provision of education  
services, so by improving the quality of working life,  
we can largely prevent the dissatisfaction and  
inefficiency of skilled and specialized staff.  
Table 6 shows the relationship between work  
quality of life and self-efficacy of high school  
principals in Izeh city by Pearson simple correlation  
coefficient. As can be seen in Table 6, the correlation  
coefficient between the quality of working life and  
the self-efficacy of Izeh school principals is r = 0.353  
and p = 0.001, which is significant at p <0.05. These  
results show that there is a significant relationship  
between the quality of working life and self-efficacy  
of Izeh school principals. This means that the  
increase in the quality of working life score is  
accompanied by an increase in the self-efficacy score  
of Izeh city school principals. Therefore, the null  
hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the third research  
hypothesis (H3) is confirmed.  
Table 6. The Relationship between the Quality of  
Working Life and the Self-efficacy of School  
Principals by Pearson's Simple Correlation  
Coefficient  
Self-efficacy of Izeh High School Principals  
Variable  
Correlation  
Coefficient  
Significance  
Level  
Frequency  
Quality of  
Working  
Life  
250  
0.353  
p=0.001  
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION  
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